Animal Waste Management Plan
Animal Waste Management Plan
3152 Siskiyou Blvd
Ashland, Oregon 97520
Swine Operation (up to 15 from November 15-April 1, up to 30 swine April 1 - November 15)
Poultry Operation (3380 annually / March 1-November 1)
GENERAL NARRATIVE DESCRIPTION
“UPROOT MEATS” is located at 3152 Siskiyou Blvd., Ashland, Oregon and is owned and operated by Krista Vegter and Sonia Consani. The farm produces free ranged poultry and heritage pork directly marketed throughout Jackson and Josephine Counties. The farm is 28.24 acres. A poultry processing facility and food processing/meat packing room is also located on the property. Pork production takes place year-round (up to 15 in the winter, up to 30 in the summer months). Poultry production takes 35 weeks out of the year and slows down in November when we finish growing fall broilers to supply frozen broilers for the winter months. Late February we purchase our first spring lot of chicks for summer production. For 2019, we hope to produce 3380 broilers, and 45 pigs. All poultry is purchased as day old chicks and will remain on the farm through to processing, piglets are purchased from other pastured pork farms roughly 3-5 piglets at a time (50 lbs) and are grown out to butcher weight (230 lbs) on farm. Our state licensing will permit us to process up to 20,000 birds of which 25% must be grown on our farm. In 2019 we plan to produce 3,380 chicken and a total of 13,520 poultry processed per year.
35 week season (March 1-November 1)
3380 Produced Annually On Site or up to 1300 at a time
5 weeks inside brooder house (chick phase), 3 weeks grazing (broiler phase)
All poultry raised on this farm is brooded in a chick brooding room with deep bedding for 5 weeks before moving to a free range grazing environment where the chickens will be placed daily outside into one of three rotated grazing areas totaling 3.04 acres. During the 3 weeks that the broilers are growing out, they are put into one of three chicken runs. Pens are rotated every 3 months for reseeding. The pens have runs leading to the main chicken house for access at night
“Heavy feeding” plants and grasses will be seeded after rotation with attention to plants that chickens thrive on foraging as well as a high need for nitrogen uptake.
At the time of the broiler growth cycle, 1/2 of the manure is direct-deposited onto the pasture for 12 hours in the day’s cycle, the other 12 hours, manure is deposited inside of the chicken house and into our deep bedding system. The deep bedding composes of wood shavings and straw for aeration. The bedding is turned once a week and fresh bedding is added. This process is a form of hot composting, and will reduce a significant amount of the nitrogen content in the bedding. The bedding is removed once a year in February before the first lot of spring/summer chicks arrive.
Broilers are grown out to 4 lb dressed weight (8 weeks).
Winter Season November 15 - April 1 (up to 15 pigs)
Summer Season April 1 - November 15 (up to 30 pigs)
All swine is raised on this farm and rotated on 10.18 total acres of grazing area. In the wetter winter months, pigs have access to the upper grazing areas (November 15-April 1). In the dryer summer months, the lower grazing areas are part of the rotational grazing areas. There is a 50 foot buffer that separates the seasonal spring/summer grazing areas from the Talent Irrigation District canal. The 50’ buffer is 15’ in excess of the required 35’ buffer. Livestock will have no access to the 50’ buffer. Spring and Fall monitoring of the vegetation is done and any necessary reseeding needed is applied. This buffer is in place to filter or treat run off if it ever may occur. The buffer will eventually provide a visual barrier as well as a deep rooted, vegetated treatment area (VTA). As the pigs grow they will be rotated through 10 grazing areas.
Pigs are rotated based on soil impact - In any given square foot a 75% disruption, and 25% vegetation before rotation. Weather and stormwater run off are a consideration when determining rotation and paddock selection.
After the pigs rotation is completed, seeding with attention to vegetables with large taproots (turnips, rutabaga, wild carrot, “tilling” radishes, pasture mix, bunch grass) at a seed rate of 30 lbs per .25 acre is applied to the space and irrigated with recycled waste water (see wastewater application section). This is to “deposit” organic material into the soil that will help act as a sponge for nutrients and moisture.
In the warmer months (May 30-September 30) lined wallow ponds will be utilized in the grazing areas allowing pigs to cool their body temperature down. Wallow ponds are strategically located on the upsides of grazing paddocks to prevent run off from leaving paddocks and only filled as needed for animal welfare. Seeding is done to the surrounding areas of the wallow ponds in the rate of 1 lb/ 100 sq ft.
Feeding will take place in a series of feeders on the upside of each swine paddock opposite to the road side, further preventing erosion and any possible run off. Retaining walls composed of oak logs and rocks will act as “dynamic accumulators” below these areas to help capture sediment and run off.
Refer back to the compost section.
Manure Collection Methods
Weekly manure pick up is done around feeding area and re-spread evenly to empty pig paddocks for reseed.
Manure is deposited within the deep bedding inside of the chicken house annually and put into the hot compost pile (refer to composting section).
50 Foot Vegetated Treatment Area Along TID / Storm Water VTA’s
A 50’ vegetated treatment area will be maintained along the TID canal. There will be no manure application or recycled waste water applied to the VTA.
Spring and Fall monitoring and reseeding with perennial grasses and heavy feeders will be applied if necessary.
There will be no access for livestock to the VTA.
The VTA will serve as a buffer for run off should it occur.
There is two Storm Water VTA’s that livestock will have no access to. This is also a protected VTA that will not receive waste water application.
These Storm Water VTA’s are bordered by livestock grazing areas C1, C2, S7-SS, C3, S3-YR, and S1-YR.
Seed application of heavy feeding grasses will be applied in the rate of 10 lbs. Per 1,000 sq. ft within 10 feet of the livestock grazing areas and 5 lbs Per 1000 sq. ft within the Storm Water VTA’s.
Birds are transported to a covered holding area and held in coops for a minimum of 12 hours prior to slaughter. This allows the birds to evacuate their digestive systems. The resulting manure is collected and put into the hot compost system. (refer to composting section.)
The birds are placed in killing cones in batches of 8 and dispatched by cutting the neck vein and artery on the right side of the neck. The birds are bled out over a collection pan and when they are dead, the birds are then scalded in a 75-gallon scalder in batches of 8 at a temperature of 145 to 149F.
The birds are then defeathered in a drum picker. Defeathering and evisceration take place in the first of two rooms in the processing facility. When the feather picker completes its cycle, the picker automatically stops turning, the defeathered birds are then transferred into the evisceration room onto a stainless steel table and removal and collection of scalded feet takes place. Thorough inspection then removes feathers missed by the feather picker. The birds are then removed to a table for evisceration.
Evisceration begins with slitting the neck skin at the base of the neck on the ventral side of the carcass and loosening the crop. The trachea and esophagus are loosened from the neck up to the base of the skull. Then reach into the upper breast with a finger to separate the veins and arteries from the heart and lungs. Pull the head until it separates from the top of the neck. This should remove the trachea and esophagus from the carcass. If it does not, those structures will be removed with the offal in the following process.
Evisceration of the abdominal contents starts with an incision below the breast muscle into the abdominal tissue. Push the abdominal contents and and pinch the skin up. Insert the knife into the thin muscle below the ribs. This incision should be approximately 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, sufficient to reach into the abdominal cavity. Separate the abdominal fat from the gizzard on the left and right sides as this fat causes the gizzard to adhere to the wall of the abdomen. Hold the loosened gizzard and roll it out of the abdominal cavity through the incision. Pull all the organs out of the body cavity, ensuring that the esophagus and trachea pull free if they were not removed with the head. At this point, the body cavity should be clean with the exception of the large intestine attached to the vent and perhaps the lungs adhering to the spine in the upper chest. Pinch the opening of the vent to prevent leaking of any intestinal contents, reach into the carcass to remove the vent muscle attached to the back of the carcass above the tail. Cut the skin around the vent and remove the vent and the large intestine. Inspect the upper chest at the back bone to verify that both lungs were removed with the rest of the organs. If the lungs remain in the carcass, use a tool called a lung scraper to pull the lungs from the back of the rib cage. This tool is also used to remove the reproductive organs from the back of the rib cage in the middle of the back bone.
The empty carcass is rinsed out with fresh water and placed in a stainless steel tank containing water and crushed ice. The carcass is immediately cooled to a temperature below 42 o F. More crushed ice is added as needed to maintain the temperature. The cleaned and cooled chickens are removed to the second room, the clean room in the processing facility. In the clean room, the carcasses are inspected, pinfeathers are removed, the oil gland at the top of the tail is removed and the birds are placed in fresh ice water and maintained at temperature below 42 o F for 24 hours.
When all chickens are eviscerated and inspected, the carcasses are placed in fresh ice water and held overnight with additional crushed ice added if necessary. The next day the chickens are drained, the carcasses are placed in plastic vacuum packs and vacuum sealed. Chickens are vacuum packed whole, placed on a bed of crushed ice in a single layer. The layer of packaged chickens is covered with crushed ice before any additional chickens are added to the tub.
Chickens may be processed further as cut-up parts. These are placed in a vacuum bag and sealed and stored layered in ice as described above.
There are several outputs to this process - the carcasses ready for the freezer, the wastewater used for scalding, rinsing, chilling and clean up, the blood, the feathers, heads, and feet, and the offal.
All of the solid waste is composted on site. (refer to composting section.) The heads, feet and glands are utilized for broth production as well as the carcasses of the boned-out chickens. Solid wastes, viscera and any mortalities are composted (refer to composting section.)
Blood is collected in pans and the coagulated blood after processing is boiled and reduced, poured into sheet pans and put into our commercial dehydrator that removes all of the water content. The dehydrated blood product is passed through a hammer mill and collected into 5 gallon buckets for transfer off of the farm as “blood meal”.
Feathers are collected in 32 gallon trash bins after the defeathering process which are added to our hot compost pile.
All waste is composted or processed within 24 hours of the completion of the processing.
All liquids from the butchering operation drain through floor drains to a catch basin where solids are removed by screening. This basin’s contents are then transferred to a 5000 gallon holding tank until it is applied to pasture, vegetation, empty reseeded pig paddocks and reseeded chicken paddocks, tree seedlings, starters, or used to moisten the compost piles. (see wastewater utilization section).
Per 10 Chickens processed, 1.25 gallons of entrails are rendered and collected for composting.
Per 50 Chickens processed, 100-150 gallons of water is utilized, or 2-3 gallons per chicken.
Per 50 Chickens processed, approximately 1 gallon of blood is collected, or roughly 1/4 cup per bird, and after, boiled, reduced and put into sheet pans for dehydration process to create ‘blood meal’.
Per 25 Chickens processed, approximately 3.75 gallons of feathers are collected.
25’x15’ composting area set on compacted earth, fenced, covered with tarps and weights.
Storm water diverted from compost pile with water bars and sand bags.
PFRP: Process to further reduce pathogens
A 12-inch layer of wood chips is placed on the base of the compost pile, feathers and evisceration offal are placed on top of the wood chips, a layer of chicken manure is placed over the waste and another 6-inch layer of wood chips covers the composting waste.
Temperature of the composting material is monitored daily. The composting area is fenced and covered by tarps, sitting on compacted earth. Drainage and culvert system are in place ensuring runoff diversion from the compost pile. Moisture is slowly added by a mister on a 4 foot line adding 1 gallon per hour. The compost pile is turned 3 times in 15 days until the internal temperature reaches 151+ o F. The pile needs to stay at 151 for 3 days before turning again. as soon as pile is at 151, start the clock for 3 days. The pile is turned and allowed to heat up again. After a second spike in temperature the compost is moved to a finishing pile where all year's compost will be turned until we have a finished consistency. We plan to annually land-apply the compost for use in our efforts to vegetate and provide regrowth for used animal paddocks as well as export the excess portion of compost to the local Jackson County farming community. Finished compost will be sampled before land applied.
Black Soldier Flies will eat manure and any residual food scraps resulting in a low nitrogen by-product. After, by-product is scraped out and put into our vermiculture pile and the worms will consume any remaining manure or residual food.
All piles are covered by tarps and contained by a surrounding fence. Plywood is used to cover the raised beds housing BSF.
Black Soldier Fly bins where the residual manure is consumed by larvae and the bedding acts a sponge to soak up excess liquid byproducts (these larvae will not consume the lignin rich cellulose of the bedding, only the high nitrogen manure). Byproducts from this process will then be added to a vermiculture system, containing a very low nitrogen content, and processed further into low-nutrient vermicompost. The objective is sequestering as much waste as possible into a living form of food.
After a completed vermiculture pile cycle, we will harvest the worms (in middle of the day spread pile onto a tarp as the worms are photo phobic, they will move away from the light) Take a pitchfork and put worms onto a grate and sift out the worms from the vermiculture soil. Put worms back into new vermiculture composting system to continue cycle and land apply finished vermiculture soil to seeded application areas.
Hot composting (offal, dead animals, mortality): rotate between 2 hot composting piles (2 cu yard each pile) side by side, alternating offal between each pile weekly based on processing schedule and offal generation.
Each week we process, add offal, turn, let it sit, monitor temperature, turn, add wood chips and offal, let it sit, monitor temperature.
At the end of the production season we will put a tarp on those piles and let them sit during the off season.
After the off season and completion of hot compost process, it is then put into the vermiculture pile for future land application.
Cold compost system (vermiculture)
BSF bins 10 cu yards, 2 rectangular raised beds with a base of 5 cu yards of chicken bedding in each, layered with food scraps and flies, covered with plywood. (Refer to BSF section.
After BSF is done consuming manure and food scraps, the by product is removed to the vermiculture pile.
Anticipated Volume: 1750 lbs of hot compost annually
All liquids from the butchering operation pass through floor drains to a 1500 gallon catch basin where solids are removed by screening. This basin’s contents are then transferred to a 5000 gallon holding tank that will sit at a higher elevation than the areas that will receive irrigation to allow for a slow application rate fed by gravity. This water will be applied to vegetation, reseeded pig paddocks, reseeded chicken paddocks, trees, starter plants, or used to moisten the compost piles. (refer to area map.)
Waste water will not be applied when there’s surface run off.
Waste water is weather permitting and will not be applied in winter months. (November 1 - April 1
We apply at very slow rates to minimize movement.
Wastewater from the processing facility is either applied to chicken pastures, empty pig pastures or tree nursery as fertilizer through a sprinkler system and used in the composting process for pile moisture management. This plan is balanced for nitrogen production and use.
**1095 gallons of wastewater will be generated from poultry processing and land or compost applied each week. The water will be tested for nutrient content and dilution levels annually after the first of the seasons waste water has filled an 1/8 of the 5000 gallon irrigation tank.
***Annual poultry processing wastewater application = 42,157 gallons (based on the average water use of 3 gallons per bird during processing and an additional 10% for clean up water)
2 hp pump from 1500 gallon catch basin -> 5000 gallon irrigation tank. Pumping will take place each time processing is performed.
5/8” commercial garden hoses will be run from the 5000 gallon irrigation tank to reseeded paddocks or vegetation. Drip tape will be attached to the garden hose and land applied at the rate of 6GPH.
For larger application areas with farther proximity from waterways, sprinklers will be used at the rate of 30 GPH.
In area’s of heavier vegetation, application rate applied will be 47 GPH-75GPH.
Up to 500 gallons of water per month will be produced during any food processing and meat packing.
Black Soldier Fly Larvae
Many farmers who practice vermiculture (composting with worms) will find these symbiotic insects in their bins and piles. Animal farmers will even inoculate manure in the fields as a means of pest fly management. The adult BSF don’t have mouth parts, do not need to eat in this stage of their life, and thus do not behave as pest flies. Females emit a pheromone that detracts pest flies from laying their eggs in the vicinity (essentially reminding them that her children will simply eat theirs for breakfast). Thus, we experience the BSF as a beneficial insect helping to discourage pest flies, breakdown organic material (with a significant reduction in CO2 compared to composting) including lipids, salts, and proteins (materials that non-pest insects and fungus don’t generally process), and interact beneficially with other insects (worms grow four-five times larger eating BSF castings (waste). This is just a brief glimpse into the benefits of maintaining BSF.
Food scraps will be acquired from various sources: farmers market waste, spent brewers grain, spent winery grapes, poultry processing waste, etc. as a feedstock for the larvae. This greatly reduces pathogens and emissions compared to traditional composting while BSF “spit” their preservative enhanced saliva onto the scraps before consuming them, thus maximizing the nutritional integrity and reducing the opportunity for fungus and bacteria. BSF eat twice their weight in a day, so scraps will be added at the appropriate ratio of estimated pounds of BSF larvae (i.e. 100lbs fed to 50lbs of larvae daily).
This process will take place in raised beds lined with a mixture of fresh straw and spent straw from the chicken house. Specifically, BSF do not eat lignin or cellulose of any kind, therefore any manure will be consumed with the food scraps, leaving behind the spongy straw to soak up any excess water and waste. As fresh scraps are applied in a “conveyer belt” like fashion, the larvae will follow the fresh food, leaving behind the spent straw accessible to collect. This stock will be brought up to PFRP (Process for Further Reducing Pathogens: 151 degrees F for 3 days), and then finished using vermiculture.
By the time we arrive at the end of the process, finished materials will have been processed and digested by two insect species, hot composted with PFRP, and low in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as this is a main focus for sequestration. The larvae also extract a high level of minerals. Specifically, this process is designed to extract as much nutrition in the form of living food for chickens and pigs, while processing byproducts to a low level of nutrition.
This final byproduct will be utilized during the seeding of pig paddocks to augment general mineral and nutrient levels in the soil.
BSF activity is highest from mid-Spring to mid-Fall, leaving approximately 3-4 months of decreased activity where we will cut production to half. Ideally we are able to produce enough insect material to be dried and stored for overwintering our animals.
BSF breeding also follows this pattern, and will not need to be enhanced for our particular project as the native population is already strong and consistent enough. All larvae will be produced in closed vessels, and collected for feed (larvae actually harvest themselves by crawling up a specially designed ramp at the end of their 2-3 week larvae cycle as their signal to pupate is activated).
Housed in contained bins, worms cannot climb up sides of bin. harvesting will take place before larvae becomes a fly.
Pupate rate is 5-7 days, worms cannot climb harvest bins.
100% of larvae will be consumed by chickens and fed to chickens daily.
Harvest will take place daily.
We are not breeding adult BSF, we are raising black solid fly larvae using the adult flies as breeding stock for larvae.
Ramp for larvae exit is 30% grade that will lead into harvesting bucket.
A stock for the beginning production months as supplemental chicken feed will be produced, dried, and stored in 5 gallon buckets.
Land Application Areas
Aerial photos showing numbered field locations for all compost application acreage and surface water features, a map is included in this Animal Waste Management Plan.
There are 4 soil types found on the property, in order of highest volume on property:
1) Vannoy silt loam 35-55 % slopes.
2) Manita-Vannoy complex, 20-40% slopes.
3) Tallowbox Gravelly Sandy Loam 35-70% slopes.
4) Selmac Loam 7-20% slopes.
A soils map and soil map unit descriptions for compost application area is included in this Animal Waste Management Plan.
Manure and Waste Volume
See OR AWM Spreadsheets + UA Processing XLS
Manure and Waste Volume
See OR AWM Spreadsheets + UA Processing XLS
Manure and Waste Volume
See OR AWM Spreadsheets + UA Processing XLS
Application Schedule and Limitations
Total land available for direct application = 24.3 acres
Total Land NOT available for application:
Drain Fields: .60 acres
VTA: 1.97 acres
Stormwater VTA’s: 1.43 acres
A minimum 50 foot vegetated buffer along Talent Irrigation District is in place that does not receive manure application. This area is naturally vegetated with trees, shrubs, and heavy feeding grasses. Annual seed application is done if necessary.
Animal Mortality Management
All deceased animals, in addition to the solid processing waste will be hot composted on site., "SEE COMPOSTING SECTION”
Record Keeping and Reporting
Soil samples will be taken in each field, once every 2 years. A wastewater sample will be taken yearly just prior to field application. Protocol for sampling and testing soil, manure and crops are included in this Animal Waste Management Plan.
“UPROOT MEATS” records the date and amount of compost, and or wastewater applied to each field.
“UPROOT MEATS” will report any discharge within 24 hours to the Oregon Department of Agriculture. Annual reports including amount of manure and wastewater applied and exported will be submitted each year.